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UVI would increase by up to 5% at all latitudes, except in the spring at high latitudes. In the Arctic spring, decreases of up to 5% are predicted, while in the Antarctic spring the remaining halocarbons continue to deplete polar ozone and increase surface UV exposure by up to 20%. Note that these projections only considered changes in ozone and did not take into account changes in clouds, aerosols or surface albedo. According to Bais ,5 changes in UV radiation due to these factors are expected to be of similar magnitude to those related to changes in ozone. . Changes in global mean tropospheric mixing ratios ppt, or pmol mol−1 of the most abundant CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, chlorinated solvents, and brominated gases. The middle right-hand panel shows secular changes in atmospheric EECl in ppb or nmol mol−1, which is an estimate of the ozone-depleting power of atmospheric halocarbons. The bottom panel shows the recent changes in EESC observed relative to the secular changes observed in the past and a projected future. EESC is derived from EECl by simply adding years to the time axis to represent the lag associated with missing air from the troposphere to the middle stratosphere where the ozone layer resides. Reproduced from Montzka SA, Butlere JH, Dutton G, Mondeel D, and Elkins JW, NOAAGMD, with permission from the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. Another misconception is that “it is generally accepted that natural sources of tropospheric chlorine are four to five times larger than man-made ones.” While this statement is strictly true, tropospheric chlorine is irrelevant; it is stratospheric chlorine that affects ozone depletion. Chlorine from ocean spray is soluble and thus is washed by rainfall before it reaches the stratosphere. CFCs, in contrast, are insoluble and long-lived, allowing them to reach the stratosphere. In the lower atmosphere, there is much more chlorine from CFCs and related haloalkanes than there is in HCl from salt spray, and in the stratosphere halocarbons are dominant. Only methyl chloride, which is one of these halocarbons, has a mainly natural source, and it is responsible for about 20 percent of the chlorine in the stratosphere; the remaining 80 percent comes from manmade sources. An increase of UV radiation would be expected to affect crops. A number of economically important species of plants, such as rice, depend on cyanobacteria residing on their roots for the retention of nitrogen. Cyanobacteria are sensitive to UV radiation and would be affected by its increase. “Despite mechanisms to reduce or repair the effects of increased ultraviolet radiation, plants have a limited ability to adapt to increased levels of UVB, therefore plant growth can be directly affected by UVB radiation.” Chlorofluorocarbons and other halogenated ozone-depleting substances are mainly responsible for man-made chemical ozone depletion. The total amount of effective halogens in the stratosphere can be calculated and are known as the equivalent

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